Tuesday, December 11, 2018
پارسی
پایگاه اطلاع رسانی استانداری خراسان جنوبی
home
South South Khorasan Province at a Glance
 Geographical Location
South Khorasan Province located in the east of Iran is limited to Razavi Khorasan from the north, Sistan & Baluchestan and Kerman from the south; Yazd, Semnan and Isfahan from the west; and has about 331 kilometers shared boundaries with Farah state - Afghanistan from the East. This province with an area of 150800 km2 covers 9% of the total area of the country.
 Natural Geograpy
Considering uneven areas, this province can be divided into two parts: High mountains and plains. Mountains are mostly located in the northern and central regions of the province and the plains are in the south and southwest, next to the Afghanistan border.
“ Nayband” mountain in Tabas with 2980 m height is the roof of the province while “ Tabas kavir Dehestan” with 530 m height from the sea level is the lowest region. The lowlands mostly include plains located in northwest, centre, west and southwest of the province. South and southwestern plains are salt marshes, and due to neighboring with Lut desert, they have dry and harsh weather exposed by sand dune attack.
As this province is in dry and arid area in the east, rivers are temporary and seasonal. There is no permanent river. Since there is no strong vegetation, floods easily destroy everything. Extensive areas in center, east and south confront with lack of water resources and only limited underground water can be relied on for water providing.
 Weather
Cold northern winds affect the province weather condition late in fall. In other words, Cold polar air masses decrease temperature. Together with western moist air masses, kinds of rainfalls can take place. On the other hand, moist air masses from west and southwest affect the weather in winter and early in spring and most of rainfalls happen at this time.
The province climate is desert and dry. But considering the condition of high and low lands two different regions could be classified:
A) Hot and arid climate: including plains and even areas in center, west and south of the province
B) Moderate and arid climate: including northern and northwestern high lands around Birjand
Regarding a 20 year statistical period, the province average rainfall is 111 mm which is mostly heavy showers and non periodic. Rainfall in desert areas is less than 50 mm in mountains it could reach 250 mm. Birjand average rainfall is 159 mm.
The highest and the lowest temperatures recorded in the province has been 49oc and – 27oc in Tabas and Qaen, respectively.
The province hot period is long. It is started from May and prolong up to September. Cold months are October, November and December.
 Subdivisions
Based on the latest subdivisions in 2011, this province has 11 cities, 28 urbal regions, 25 district and 61 villages.
 
                Statistical Calendar of the South Khorasan (2011)   
  

Countrysides

 

Urban areas

 

Rural district

 

District

 

Area (km2 )

 

City

 

Total

Without

residents

With residents

3563

1680

1883

28

61

25

150800

Total province

353

270

83

2

4

2

5993

Boshrouyeh

429

104

325

1

6

1

4004

Birajand

196

39

157

4

6

3

5797

Darmiyan

313

264

49

3

4

2

9342

Sarayan

353

93

260

2

6

3

8199

Sarbisheh

241

197

44

2

3

1

4103

Ferdows

247

78

169

5

8

3

7601

Ghayenat

535

237

298

2

5

2

26094

Nehbandan

493

313

180

3

8

3

55412

Tabas

294

77

217

2

5

2

16029

Khousf

109

8

101

2

6

3

8226

Zirkuh

 Historical Background
 
From a very long history up to Zandieh period, there has been a place, named Ghohestan, around South Khorasan. Ghohestan or Ghuhestan means mountain. Considering the mountainous situation of this region the name fits the place. Another reason mentioned by some scholars, due to lots of karizes in this area, this place got the name as these scholars believe word Ghohestan consists of two parts: first, Gu and second prefix –stan: means water obtained from a well or kariz.
Based on some of Hakhameshi inscriptions, Greek scholars believed that Ghohestan has been the inhabitat of Sagart, one of Iranian tribes and it was the fourteenth Satrap of Hakhamanishis’. Herodot, the great historian in the fifth century B.C., said:” They are one of the eastern tribes and inhabitant of the fourteenth Satrap of Hakhamaneshis’.” This region was a flourished one during Sasani’s period. Heptalian were the kings of this region. Inscriptions found in Kuch, Lakh Mazar, include information in Pahlavi manuscripts, about Akheshnavaz and Ghobad kings of Heptalian and Saani, respectively. There are some scenes about the marriage of Akheshnavaz daughter with Ghobad and the face of some of other Heptailan features on these inscriptions indicating the strong presence of Heptalian in South of Khorasan.
.
“ Khousf kal Jangal” inscription approves that Ghohestan region was an independent area during Ashkanian period. Historians believe that Muslims conquered Khorasn in 22 A.H. during Omar caliphate and following to Khorasan, Muslims defeated Ghoestan in 29 A.H. during Osman caliphate. Up to 259 A.H. Ghohestan was under the dominance of Abbasian and Caliphates governed it. Taherian also spent some years governing this region. Sistan local princes occupied the area for a while. Esmaeeli princes governed Ghoehstan from 266 to 655. Eight princes ruled Ghohestan.
Being located in distant area and dominating by long and impassable mountains were the most important reasons for Ismaeelian to choose Ghohestan. Hassan Sabbah castle, Kuh castle Of Qaen and Ferdows, Shah dej Castle in Nehbandan and Rostam castle are the most famous castles constructed by Ismaeelian in Ghohestan. Hassan Sabbah castle was the most strategic ruling place after Alamot castle where the most dedicated soldiers have been trained there. Holaku Khan attacked Ghohestan and put an end to the dominance of Ismaeeilian with remaining thousands of mortalities.
Although in the sixth to seventh A. H., Ismeelian presence created lots of conflicts, these conflicts made Birjand to be recognized by others. From the seventh Century A. H. the word Birjand has become known. But up to Safavieh period, it was nothing more important than a village. Gradually, it flourished. Passing caravan created appropriate opportunities for that infamous city in order to be prospered. During Safavieh time (90 7-1135 A.H.) when Arab princes settled down in Tabas Golshan( Date Tabas), Birjand has been chosen as their center of kingdom. 
 Language and Dialects

As this area has special climate, it never tempted invaders a lot to attack it. That’s why the people’s language and race have not been under great changes. Hence, Fars and Farsi have been the dominant race and language, respectively, the formal race and language become untouched. This language got special dialect in each region e.g. Birjandi dialect, Qaeni dialect,… . These dialects are different from each other in vocabularies, sentence making and sometimes in accents. Some Arab tribes still live in this region. They keep their own language, though they have been mixed with Farsi a lot.  
 Population
Based on 2012 census of population and housing, 732192 people equal to 203366 households have been settled in this province. They allocate 1 % of the country population. It means that, there are 5 persons in each km2. The national index for per square kilometer inhabitant is 46 persons. Birjand has the most condensed population and Tabas has the least condensed one.
Among the province populations 368101 (50.3 %) and 364091 (49.7%) persons are male and female, respectively. Among them 414173 persons (56.6%) live in cities and 317974 (43.4%) settle in rural areas. 45 persons aren’t inhabitants.
Population disparity happens based on the geographical condition. Mostly, people occupy mountain basis near water resources. So, it can be claimed that the population dispersion of each region depends on its climate and topographic conditions (availability of water resources) of that region.

Ratio of Urbanity to Rural Area Living
Based on the 2012 census of population and housing, 56.6 % (414173) of the province population live in urban areas while 43.4 % (318019) live in rural areas.
 Population growth rates and age & gender composition
Based on the information obtained in 2007 and 2012, population growth of this province has been 0.82% in which cities indicate 4.08 and villages -0.21 %. These rates show that villages become vacant and villagers immigrate to urban areas.
Census of population and housing in 2012 showed that 50.3 % and 49.7 % of the population of the province are men and women, respectively. So the gender ratio is 101 meaning that there are 101 male against 100 female.
Without taking Tabas into account, according to census of population and housing in 2006 and 1996, the province population is 28.57% under 15 years old, 64.40% between 15-64 and 7.02% in 65 or older.
 
 
1395/02/07
Scoring
Average Scores:2 Total Rate:1
View Comments (Number of Comments 0)
Send comments
name  
E-mail address    
شماره تلفن
Description  
تغییر کد امنیتی  
SecurityCode  
 
footerpic
Powered by DorsaPortal