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The The Province Agricultural Scope
 Agricultural activities in the province

The agricultural scope of South khorasan province contains water resources such as; 3179 wells, 2084 spring series, and 6197 aqueduct with an annual discharge of 1243/41 Million cubic meters of water. The province contains 131751/3 hectares under cultivation of arable crops with 684631 tons production, and 57468/6 hectares under cultivation of horticultural crops with 106784 tons production. The main arable crops of the province are wheat, oats, cotton, saffron, sugar beets, potato, beans or cereals, melon bed crops, and forage plants and the main horticultural crops are barberry, jujube, pistachio, olive, apple, pomegranate, date, grape, silverberry and narcis.

     The province has obtained the third place of the country in producing medicinal plants while about 38767 hectare are cultivated and 1682 tons are produced. In this province 800 species of medicinal plants are identified. The 70 of them are rare species of the plants such as Chubak, South maternal odor, cute, desert, dick Birjand, sixty bride, Mastar, and beautiful dwarf shrubs such as ivy Khorasani.

     The main medicinal plants of the province are asafoetida, sweetroot, vsha plant, thyme, sisymbriumirio, cumin, teucrium, artemisia, yarrow, chamomile, ferula, aloe vera, Totalac, peppermint and local mint, lemon beebrush, lavandula, rosemary, tragacanth gum, peanut, spline, van tiegh or black guinea, launaeaacanthodes, jvh, haratichubak, galbanum, pistaciaatlantica, varmak, armak, alysTotal, lamiaceae, lyceum chinensis, wolf knife, cross the desert, roman harmala and qlyanak.

     Besides, the province contains 3759864 livestock unites that in addition to supplying the province demand for the livestock products, it also export these products to neighbor provinces. The province has 89799 beneficiaries in agricultural section who produce each year 995101 tons from different kinds of agricultural and livestock products. 

 Advantages and capabilities of agricultural sector development

The province being situated on the direction north-south and east-west and its effect on all dimensions of development specially agriculture.

1-      The relative benefits of some of these agricultural products particularly in getting the first status of barberry and jujube production, the second status in saffron production, the fifth status in narcis production and also livestock productions such as possessing  the complete cycle of chicken and genetic resources of  livestock.

2-      The possible utilization of flat plains and deserts in breeding livestock such as camel  ( about  15 percent of the country’s camel population),  production of high quality wool from Balluchi sheep and producing fluff from the Fluffy goat with highly valuable economic benefit and also the production of adaptable agricultural products.

3-      Possessing both local and traditional knowledge of optimal use from water and soil resources and getting the first status in the number of aqueducts in the country.

The possibility of establishing corporate farming companies, agricultural training centers and  investigating center of agriculture and natural resources to educate skilled manpower and the operation of investigating plans for the arid and dessert lands
  

Investment priorities in agriculture sector

1-      Establishing medicinal plants production complexes.

2-      Establishing gardens and farms with mechanized cultivation of barberry and saffron.

3-      Establishing wide scope greenhouse complexes and the production of vegetables and the oyster Mushroom.

4-      Establishing industrial slaughter of livestock and poultry and ancillary industries (cannes).

5-      Establishing complexes for breeding chickens, eggs and breeder hens.

6-      Breeding of hydrothermal (warm water) and seller (cold water) fish.

7-      Establishing industrial livestock.

8-      Establishing concentrate factories and pickled fruits such as plum, fig, almond, raisin, jujube.

 Agriculture

The under cultivation lands for the farming productions in the province was about 131751 hectare with the production of 684631/3 tons in crop year (2011-2012). The main arable crops of the province are wheat, oats, cotton, saffron, beets, potato, cereals, melon bed crops, and forage plants.

 Horticulture

The total lands under cultivation of horticultural productions in 2012 was 57468/59 hectares with 106784/1 tons production from which 47375/59 hectares has been dedicated to the cultivation of  lands with irrigated horticultural products and 10093 hectare to rainfed horticultural products. The main horticultural products with higher potential production in the province are: barberry, saffron, jujube, pistachio, olive, apple, pomegranate, date, grape, silverberry, and narcis. 

 
 Barberry
 
 
Barberry with the scientific name “Barberisvulgarisl” from the “Barberidaceae” family is a flower that reaches a height of 9 feet. It has gray branches with spiny leaves, blooming between April and June with light yellow flowers while in autumn colors come in cherry red growing with curved branches. Barberry medical use back to the period of ancient Egyptian pharaohs and queens, when they mixed the plant with fennel in order to treat the plague. Bran and the root of barberry contain chemicals called “alkaloid Isokinolin.” According to the scientists and researchers prolonged studies, the compound has been understood to have antibiotic properties. Some of them lead to lower fever, reduce inflammation, and regulate heart rate and blood pressure and the empowering of heart muscles. Today it is believed that this plant can cure and mitigate joint pains and suddenly swellings of psoriatic arthritis. Barberry can also be effective in treating some kinds of infections such as yeast infections and diarrhea, throat infection, urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract - the intestinal tract and lungs. The ripe barberry can be used for making jam called “gharghat”. Barberry is one of the most important horticultural products of the province and the under cultivation lands for this product is 13406 hectares and the production rate is 14304 tons, with dedicating  98.9 percent of the production in the country in 2012, the province have been ranked first in the country. Ghaenat city is the main place for the cultivation of barberry. 
 
 
 Saffron 
 
 
  

Saffron with the scientific name “Crocussativus Linnaeus” is a plant from the Znbqyan family with beautiful purple flowers. It has a colorful tricorn crest with pleasing smell which has eating, medical and dyeing conTotalptions. It is the most important horticultural product in South khorasan.Due to the geographical conditions its production potential is high. The product is also called Red Gold.

     The multiplication of the plant is through its onion. The most useful part of the plant is the crest. The saffron crest contains color, taste and a pleasing smell, each one associated with special chemicals. However the saffron color is related to lots of water-soluble pigments such as Crocine and Crocetine and fat-soluble materials such as Lycopene and Carotene. The bitter taste of saffron is also related to a material called Picrocrocine and the saffron smell is the result of volatile oils. These essences absorb the oxygen in a simple way and change into thick brown liquid named Saffranal. In addition to these chemicals, saffron is consisted from vitamins B1 and B2 and some minerals. Based on the last information from the study of many scientific articles the colorful material (Crocine) has been shown to be very effective on preventing cancer progression on laboratory animals. 

 Herbal and medicinal properties of saffron:

1 -Saffron creates joy and happiness. It is good for the stimulation of appetite and digestion, but it has an astringent effect that may cause constipation.

2 -Saffron has a warm nature that makes stronger the senses. It has an overwhelming effect to ease the sadness.

3 –Saffron mitigates the cough and chronic bronchitis because it has an anesthetic effect on the nerve endings of the pulmonary bubbles.

4 -Eating saffron is helpful for dental pains, relieve tension and insomnia state. If it is eaten with honey, it can be helpful also to relieve kidney stones, gallstones, removal of the spleen, and also accelerate the delivery.

The under cultivated lands in the province for this product is 20112 hectares and the province has dedicated the second rank of the saffron production in country. To crop one kilo of saffron, 500000 flowers are needed, and if the condition is suitable, each hectare will be cropped for 7 to 10 kilos saffron. Now the main saffron under-cultivation cities in the province are Nehbandan, Birjand, Ghayen, Ferdows and Dyhouk which is a district in Tabas.

 Jujube
 
 
 
 Jujube with “Zezyphus “ genus and the “ jujube” species and “Ramnaceae” family  exist in two kinds of  tame and wild in Iran , Afghanistan , china , India , Algeria. The habitat of this tree is in Middle East especially Iran and Afghnistan .Jujube is a thorny tree that can resist on cold and hot weathers. Adoptability of this tree against hard climate condition and soil condition makes its cultivation possible in cold region. Jujube grows in most Birjand’s villages even in unqualified soil with approximately satisfactory amount of the product which could be much productive in fertilized field with desirable irrigating condition. Depending on the condition, length of the tree may reach to 6 till 10 meters. Jujube is usually propagated by shoots, cutting and laying of young branches. But when breeding is required it can be done by using seeds. Jujube fruits can be conTotaled as eatable fruits or medical herbs. It is beneficial to cure asthma and cancer. It is also antifebrile, pain killer, appetizer and useful for improving indigestion. According to Avecinna, on describing the jujube properties, he believed: “it is a body mucusbalancing and laxative, effective for respiratory and nose congestion and treating cough and asthma, and normalization of blood serum. It relieves inflammation and thirst, sooth the blood, Liver, urinary tract and anal diseases and obdominal organs, and erase them and heals”(page 14447- Dehkhode. Adapted from MakhzanoAlAdviye).Small wild fruits of jujube contain a lot of amount of vitamin C (1750 mg in 100g) while the bigger bred ones contain less ( 500 to 150 mg in 100g ). However, the amount of vitamin C in jujube is decuple than lime. In addition to vitamin C jujube also contains vitamin P, pectin, a lot of iron, copper and potash which all are effective in hemoglobinformation.

A Jujube tree may produce 80 to 100 kilos fruit through enough caring and wide space. For better quality it is better to let the fruit be dried on the tree but after cropping they have to be lain at the sunlight. Jujube tree’s wood has a pretty red color and because of the beautiful color and the strength it is used in carpentry  to make furniture and decorative things like statue, cane, pipe, inlay and also in building ship and musical instruments. The province has 2161 hectares under-cultivation lands of jujube with 3344 tons products and with having 94.3 percent of the country in jujube production it has been allocated the first rank of the country in production of this plant.

 
 Pomegranate
 
Pomegranate has twigs without or with less acanaceous. The tree reaches a height of 2 to 5 meters. Species (Granatm) has many different kinds of it, each with their own special characteristics. Pomegranate, grape, fig and pistachio are all the special plants of desert, so that they are customarily planted in South and eastern parts of Birjand. The under cultivated lands of pomegranate in 2012 was 4339 hectares with the total production of 34714 tons. 
 
 
1395/02/07
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