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Cultural Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Scope of the province
 Cultural Landscapes

South khorassan had been called Qohestan in historical documents, which included Khaf, Gonabad, Bajestan, Kashmar, Tabas, Ferdos , Qayen , Tabas-e-Masina , Nehbandan  and Birjand . According to Achaemenid's inscription and documents of Greek historians, Qohestan was the habitat and origin of Iranian tribes named "Sagart" while it was regarded as part of Achaemenian Satrap the fourteen Kingdoms. "Kallgangal" inscription as a reliable document indicates that Qohestan had been part of Ashkani kingdom in Ashkanian period and it was one of the populous and great states in Sassanid era.

     Historian considers the conquest of the Qohestan in the year 29 H. Qohestan was ruled by Abbasian by the year 259 H., in this year Yaghoob-e-leith Saffari defeated Qohestan and appointed rulers to it and it was governed by Saffari's tribe. After that, Qohestan was dominated by Sistan's local rulers and has been ruled by Esmailiyeh rulers from Hassan Sabbah to Hollakoo's invasion, as Qohestan was one of the main political centers of this sect, second to Alamoot. Kal Hassan-e-Sabbah castle, Hussein Qayeni's castle, Toon Mountain castle, Shahdezh castle and Rostam's castlees were among the most famous of all Esmailian castlees. Finally they were destroyed by Hollakoo's invasion.

     On the other hand, due to its specific climate, Qohestan was not affected by foreigners' attention and attacks and its people language and tribe remained pure and undistorted. Because the majority of them are Persian, the formal language used is Persian. This language is spoken with different accent depending on the especial accent related to that region including, Birjandi's accent, Qayeni's accent, Sarayani's accent, Nehbandani's accent which are differentiated by differences in words, wording and stress on syllables. Also, the majority of the Arabs living in this area have kept their language.

     Among the cultural features of this province are; Kakol celebration and thanksgiving in Farming , Buck breeding celebration , Nowrouz  celebration to make Haftsin  table , Barat and Moharam customs like palm taking , Taazieh , Flag rotating , Shovel shaking , light rotating , Seven pulpit and Stoning and Chenesht  wedding celebrations . Some common game of this region which have its special fans are; Goleh Bazi , Marble Bazi , Choob Bazi ,Seven Stones , kotesh kharabeh and… .

     The clothes worn by the natives are: Felt hat , Night hat , Mandil , Edge hat , Pahlavi hat , Skull cup , Cashere , Neckbolts , vest , shirt , Qomys , Dolman , Torso cloth , pants , puttee, which are used by men while women wear kerchief , handkerchief , mask , keloteh , koseh , skullcap , skirt , dalaq ,panks , buttony shoes , Gorgy , Galesh with Chenesht clothes which have unique features while are used with a little change .

     Some jewelries of ladies are : bracelet , Jeghe , khefty , Manjagh , ring , armlet , anklet , crown , earring  and mangol .  Local foods of the province are cooked with available ingredients which are appropriate with whether condition. Some of them include : lentil food , plum food , tomato food , yellow curd , ashjosh and various sweet include : ginger bread , Charkhi break , rice bread , tube bread , etc . Different local breads: double-baked bread, Samanoo bread, Gholfi bread, massive bread, panic grass bread, Joosh bread, sesame bread, etc.

     Traditional music of south Khorasan has a long record that rhythmic and dramatic movements are its special property and dancer hit special wood coordinated with music. The most beautiful and melodious songs and heroic dance beside composing poem exist in south khorassan .Triplex and Pentamerous composes which are common in province, is exclusive of south khorassan province. Some musical instrument include; timpani, reed , hornpipe , circle which always are made by composers . Some music pieces of this region consist of; Asil, Narenare , Right and left , Shirjeh ,Ahval and Sezarb .

 cultural heritage capabilities of the province 
 
 
 -          Due to the existence of historical-cultural record of Iranian-Islamic tradition, there is the possibility of research in anthropological and cultural issues.

-          The existence of 1189 monuments in this province and registration of 686 of them in national monument list of Iran.

-          More than 11 historical gardens are registered in national monument list and General Administration attempt to register some of them in UNESCO international monument list to develop internal and external tourism.

-          Existence of highly-valued inscriptions and epigraphs which date back to many years ago which were found in Kal Jangle, Kooch, Makhonic and …..

-          Existence of enclosures and historical hills with more than five thousand precedence in province and their high potentiality to be researched and attract tourist.

-          The Variety and plurality of historical collection and capability to revive and use them for sociable  usage like caravanserai, historical school , historical house , historical bath , historical garden  and…

-          The Existence of historical castles and defensive fortresses, especially from Esmailian period and their high potentiality to be registered in universal monument list and tourism.     

-          The existence of historical and cultural texture of cities and rural areas, including Boshroyeh and Birjand historical texture and villages' texture including; Forg, Khoor, Makhunic, Bideskan, etc. and their high potentiality in the case of repairing and improvement. 

-           The South Khorasan is one of anthropological poles in Iran, being away from great centers and lack of cultural change. Most of Iranian ancient traditions are practiced by people in South Khorasan and two out of the seven wonderful villages in Iran located in South Khorasan. Makhunic is reputed for its architecture and ancient texture of monuments like Makhunic's Epigraph, Golanjir Tower and rotating castle and house and the region's economy, farming land and small gardens and the smallness of houses' doors in Sarbisheh Town. Chenesht village is another anthropological attraction of this area with regard to its speech, local mantle and its traditions.

-          Existence of technical library with more than 7000 books.

-          Existence of 14 museums in the province which include the following ones: 

 Archeological Museum: (Mansion and Garden of Akbariyeh)

Birjand archeological museum (on the first floor of Akbariyeh mansion) is the biggest in Archeological museum province. Important sections of it include clay , coin , metal , weapons , lighting ,  Quran , mirror  forum  , books and mirror forum .

Potteries and coins form the majority of the monuments of this museum. Pottery's collection related to different historical era include hand-made pea-colored potteries related to the third millennium BC, grey potteries of first millennium, glazed potteries of Islamic era and coins collection which include historical coins of Solokian, Elimayi, Partian, and Sassanid and different Islamic era's coin to Qajar era. 

 Anthropological Museum (Mansion and Garden of Akbariyeh)

In this museum a brief account of South Khorasan region livelihood and professions are portrayed. The record of the things kept in this museum goes back to more than one hundred years ago. Among the different sections of the museum are, wedding celebration room, farming, basket-weaving, pottery, shoemaking, hand-mill, blacksmithing, physician, hair-dressing, spinning, cloth-weaving which are displayed by mannequin.     

 Wildlife Museum (Mansion and Garden of Akbariyeh)

Species of wildlife (native and non-native) are presented in several collections. This collection consists of 100 different bird species and 40 mammals and reptiles which are held through taxidermy. The bird section of this collection include varieties of duck , heron ,pelican , pheasant , owl , eagle , buzzard , stork , crow , etc. mammal section of this collection involve paellas cat , forest cat , fox , rabbit , ram, etc. There are species of reptiles portrayed next to other species. 

 Heroic Heritage Museum (Amir-e-Arab Gym)

Heroic Heritage museum was established in 2005 H. which was concurrent to" The Government Weak" by private sector within Amir-e-Arab gym known as "Lab-e-band Gym". Its record goes back to 200 years ago which was a mere Gym in Lab-e-Band locality and was located between two well-known dams "Haji Mohammad Jaafar" and " Baroot Kooban) in a peripheral alley which was known as Lab-e-Band gym and now is known as Amir-e-Arab gym. 

 Endowment Museum (Shokatiyeh School)

Shokatiiyeh School was built in 1312 H. by Amir Esmail Khan Shokatolmolk command to be used for Moharram Mourning formalities and in 1316 H. was chosen as the first new school in Birjand by Mohammad Ebrahim Khan Shokatolmolk' initiative after the establishment of Darollphonoon in Tehran and Rashidieh in Tabriz. For a long time it was used both for religious formalities and school.  Birjand Endowment museum was established, concurrent to the 100th anniversary of Shokatiyeh School, in historical mansion of Shokatiyeh school by coordination of Cultural Heritage Organization. This two-portico building is built in two floor and is considered to be the second large Hosseineyeh in Birjand and is regarded an architectural masterpiece of its own time. Its architectural components include arched entries, vestibule, lobbies ending to the yard, pool house, dome house, rooms and porches round the yard. The entries' bow is forked-like. The most important part of Shokatiyeh is the portico which is built on a wide opening. Now, it is used just for religious purposes.   

 Birjand's National Museum of Honored and Celebrated: (Pordeli House)

The Celebrated Museum, located in Pordeli historical house is established in historical texture of Birjand. This building is constructed in two floors, having a central yard, entry, vestibule, yard, columned balustrade and numerous rooms. The façade of the building is decorated by bricks with geometric designs and forked bow which displays an especial beauty. Pordeli House, as a beautiful and old house in Birjand, is a memento of Qajari architecture with its frame-like space which is indicative of a foreign culture and one element which is used in its architecture, porticos extended from one side to the other and columns built on them, is derived from Azari architecture, whose origin is Russia and the architectural principles used in it indicates a combination of Islamic and foreigners architecture. In this museum a combination of biographies, documents and manuscripts, compilations, national, scientific and literary tokens, tablets, images and private necessities of people of distinction in science and culture of this area such as, Hakim Nazari, Abdol-Ali Birjandi, Ibn-e-Hesam Khosfi, professor Mohammad Hassan Ganji, Sheikh Hadi Hadavi, Sheikh Mohammad Ebrahim Ayati, etc., are displayed. The displayed objects explain the position of these men in scientific and cultural assemblies and even throughout the entire world. The second floor of the museum is devoted to the monuments of the Honored and Celebrated people of 7th to 10th century and the first floor is assigned to the monuments from 10th to 13th century. 

 Private Museum of Boshroyeh ; ( Molla Abdollah Toni )

 Privte Museum of Boshroyeh was established with coordination of private sector in Molla Abdollah Asadi historical house which is located in historical texture of Boshroyeh Town. This building is one of the four-portico houses of Safavid era and with its superb architecture is the birthplace of one of the most important Iranian scholars, Molla Abdollah Toni Boshravi, who lived in Safavid era. This building consist of numerous rooms, cooking room, winter room, windswept room. As local people say, Asadi's House building dates back to over 400 years ago.

 Khezri Museum

This museum was established with coordination of Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization, Deputy Governing and Islamic Council of Khezri Dasht-e-Bayaz town in a building about 90 meters next to Janat park of this city. The monuments held in museum are a collection of anthropological objects and traditional life appliances. 

 Anthropological Objects Museum of Sarayan ( Sarayan's Inn)

The anthropological Objects Museum was established in the camel-room of Sarayan's Inn. This Inn which is known as "Shah Abbasi Inn" is one of the Safavids' era monuments and is built in two-portico style and its architectural atmosphere includes; two-portico entrance façade, vestibule, peripheral rooms, numerous chambers and stable. 

 Anthropological Museum of Nehbandan (Salary House)

This Museum is located in Salari's House, which is one of beautiful and historical houses in Nehbandan which extends to 1800 square meters. Salari's House is a two-portico house and with regard to its architectural style, it is constructed in the end of Qajar era and in later eras some extensions were added to it. 

 Especial Tourism Areas

In addition to historical attractions, south khorasan province enjoys natural attractions. Villages and especial tourism areas can be visited by experts, including: Band-e-Dareh tourism area, Baghestan-Hot water of Ferdows, Tourism area of Toon city In Ferdows, tourism area of Mosabi-Kerimou in Sarayan, Qayeni Bozorjmehr, tourism area of Kharv and Niaz in Tabas, tourism area o Qohestan in Darmyan, Afin tourism village in Zirkooh, Azmighan tourism village and Pirhajat tourism village of tabas. Makhunic tourism village in Sarbishe, Chenesht tourism village, Foorg tourism village in Darmyan, Khoor tourism village, Ferdows Hot Water in Tabas, Loot Hot Water, Sour Water in Sarbishe, tourism areas of  Dehsalm and Heydarabad in Nehbandan, Hematabad in Zirkooh, Boshroyeh and Se-Ghaleh in Sarayan, Mozzafari in Ferdows, Havan in Tabas are examples of tourism villages in South Khorasan. 

 Band-e-Dareh tourism area        

Tourism attractions of Band-e-Dareh are indispensible to its nature. The existence of high mountains, green valleys and the existence of water make it the most important recreational site in Birjand.  The existence of historical dam in the area and supplying it with winter and spring is included within the natural view of the area. Being close to the capital of the province and enjoyment of crowded city of Birjand- beautiful 

 
 
 and pleasant infrastructure of the area, lack of problems related to ownership and introduction of investors are its especial investors.  The establishment of restaurant, amusement park, coffee shop, dining room, athletic field, and mountain climbing track the areas to be invested.
 
 Tourism area of Toon in Ferdows

The historical city of Toon has a collection of historical monuments like, principal Mosque, old Houses, Bathrooms, Reservoirs, Mellat Park, Soltant Mohammad and Ibrahim's shrines which date back to Safavid era.  The old Toon city surroundings have valuable historical attraction.  In addition to the above-mentioned monuments, Delgosha-Baghestan forest park, Hot water, Bideskan village and Mahdieh exist in Ferdows town. Existence of different attractions like historical-recreational monuments, existence of premium-quality garden products for export, rich historical background, rich cultural environments with great record, its record in handicrafts are among the features of this area.  

 Boshroyeh Tourism area

There exists the biggest collection of historical and cultural attractions in Boshroyeh area.  The old texture of Boshroyeh town, twisted alleys, clay symbols, dome-like roofs and air-traps, attractions like Moustofi's house, miandeh mosque, Elmieh school, Miandeh bathroom, Khan's garden, Boshroyeh Dokhtar castle, Hoogand castle, Khooshab stone inn, Chahargonbad, Jangal and the city neighborhood to the desert is one of the unique features of Boshroyeh.

Baghestan Tourism area in Ferdows

The most important attraction of this area is the natural attraction of Baghestan village, including alleys replete with tall trees, buildings' façade and numerous gardens of different fruits like pomegranates, nuts, grapes and peaches are among the most important features of the village. 

 Mosabi- Kerimou Tourism area
 
 
  

One of the most important Tourism attractions of Mosabi- Kerimou are its beautiful views which are formed by natural elements and changes made by human. Mosabi –Kerimou area is situated in green and pleasant valleys at the heart of the desert. The existence of Sabz waterfall and Shahid Parsa dam are its natural attractions. Also, sultan karim and Mosayeb's shrine, regarding people's cultural situation are the other features of the area.  

 
 Dorokhsh and Asiaban Tourism area

The principal mosque and the surrounding castles of Dorokhsh are among the most important cultural and historical attractions. The old castle of Dorokhsh is another attraction of the area which dates back to Esmailian era. Sharif's shrine is a small building which has a cruciferous plan with regard to its architecture and its external façade is octagonal with arches around which are placed the two minarets and dates back to Qajari's era.  Doroksh's Hosseineye and the village cemetery are other attractions the village as well as the existence of the fireplace adds to its importance.

 Bouzarjmehr Tourism area in Qayen
 
 
 
 
 Three kinds of historical, cultural-natural and Men-knowing attractions include: Abolmafakher Tomb, Bouzarjomehr Tomb and the mountain castle. Natural attractions include: existence of mountainous and desert-like land with lands cultivated with saffron and men-knowing attractions including: Mashahir Square, Unidentified Martyrs' Tombs and forest park. 
 Morteza Ali Tourism Spring area
 
 
 This spring is one of the most important natural attractions of Tabas town which is situated in Kharv village in 27th km of Tabas town. In order to get to the spring, after passing Tabbas city, in a place name Niaz, the mainstream of the spring starts. In order to get to the fountain-head, we should go 5 km against the water flow. Along the course of the spring, there are high and stone walls which is pleasant and beautiful. In this course, after passing 3.5 km, we arrive to Jaffari's spring which has cold water and after going 1.5 km, we go against the flow to arrive to an area where thermal springs exist. The biggest of these holes is referred to as Morteza Ali Spring. This natural monument has remedial effect in addition to its natural beauties and many people visit this spring for treatment and taking bath. Above this spring, the valley is tightened and after that we get to Shah Abbasi arch and dates back to Safavid era which is included among the historical attractions.  The other course to spring is from Kharv village side which requires passing the valley and against the water flow from Jaffari's spring location to east north for 1.5 km. After the Morteza Ali Spring, there exists another spring with cold water and enjoys a lower importance. This spring, along with Shahabadi arch attracts thousands of people for recreation and visiting the area.
 Azmighan Tourism area
It is located in northern of Tabas and among Shotoris' mountains and because of being placed in a good climate , various fruit gardens, rice lands and short distance to Tabas and is one of the summer quarters and beautiful areas of Tabas Town. Above the village and in eastern side, there is summer quarters area named Khanik which enjoys the same situation as Azmighan and in some cases is superior to it and added to the area attractions.

Mountainous Tourism area
This summer-quarter area is located in northern part of Tabas town and is colder than other parts of Tabas. Pir Abou Nasr known as "Pir-e Hajat" is built on a mountainous slope in this area. 
 Tourism villages

Makhunic Tourism village

 
 Among the tourism villages of the province whose people are shorter in height, compared with other areas. Due to its simple architecture and virgin location, Makhunic has received tourists and researchers attention. Among the architectural attractions of Makhunic are its steep alleys and lack of straight ones. In addition to its architecture and old texture, monuments like Majhunic's epigraph, Gol anjir Tower, castle and Sargardooni House exist in this village. Among the other attractions of the village are the area's economy, farming lands, gardens and smallness of houses' doors which attracted the tourists an visitors' attention. 
 Chenesht Tourism village
The tern Chenesht is derived from "Chand Shat", regarding the existence of some rivers. It is named so, because there have been four rivers passing through the old texture of the village. Its speech type, local mantle and specific traditions of the area, makes it one of the special tourism villages. The establishment of the village in mountainous area creates mountainous and fascinating landscapes, despite the existence of trees and green gardens.
Khoor Tourism village
The village is one of Khosf's dependencies of Birjand city. Khoor village is settled amid a desert and has a centralized residential texture. Clay houses with dome-like roofs, central yard, air traps, rooms surrounded by the yard are made to be harmonious with climate situation of the village. Buildings like castle and reservoir, mosque, Hosseineyeh and bathroom are among the monuments of Safavid era which show themselves. The texture of the village is a traditional one and is influenced by desert-like architecture and has historical and cultural value.
 Foorg Tourism village
 
 
 
Foorg village is one of the ancient villages in Quhestan. Attractions like old castle, historical stones used in the façades and old houses are indicative of precedence and old history of it. The green and beautiful environments of this village are a good place for tourists to spend their spare time. Foorg's surrounding and neighboring villages like Dooshengan are among the summer quarter areas and a place for recreation.  
 Afin Tourism village

Afin village is one of Zohan's deputy dependencies of Qayenat city. The existence of buildings and monuments left in the village like, different castles and Principal mosque indicates the village precedence. Historical precedence of Afin dates back to pre-Islamic era. Afin village is settled in a mountainous area and has a crowded residential texture and the combination of natural and man-made spaces make a beautiful landscape which indicates coexistence of nature and men's activities. Coincidence of genius men and nature has caused the construction of habitats which lasted for centuries.  Favorable climate, mountainous views and its surrounding summer quarters makes it a good place for the tourists to spend their spare time. Afin village has attractions like, Afin castle, Zardan castle, Zardan inn, old reservoir, principal mosque and barberry and saffron farms which attracted thousands of tourists to this area.

Treatment water sites

Ferdows Water therapy Complex:

Helal-e  Ferdows mineral spa is located at kilometer 20 of Ferdows-Mashhad main road and is more than  200 years old.

Due to the increase in welfare services  and residential facilities Helal-e  Ferdows mineral spa today is considered  as one of the main natural attractions and the country’s East tourism hub in health care and water therapy receiving  many honorable people of Iran every day. Regarding high capacities and capabilities of the complex, distinguished by the State Board, it was approved and introduced as the country's sample tourism region.

The complex is now equipped with two hydrotherapy pools, private baths, suites accommodatedwith all facilities and a total of 206 residential apartments, restaurants, shops, city games, sports and recreational spaces are. Also, with the launch of the first camp and the province’s Helal tourism camp complex with facilities 200-seat auditorium, of two central kitchen and bathrooms, this complex has become the province's largest residential complexes.

Loot Hot Water

It is located in the 70th km of Birjand in Birjand-Kerman old road and is one of Khosf's dependencies. The surrounding attractions include; the desert and the reservoirs. Loot Hot water has unique treatment effects for skin, heart, blood vessels and joints' diseases. 20 residential suits are being built in this area.

Sarbisheh Sour water

This treatment water site is located in Birjand-Sarbisheh road and Shing Sour water in 65th km of Birjand and has natural attractions like, green fields as recreation site, castle and treatment water site. The sour water building is being built and is ready to be used. This treatment water site is good for skin and digestion problems. 

 Investing backgrounds of cultural heritage and tourism

Establishment of restaurant, commercial rooms, rally races, residential suit, Horse-riding…

 

Outstanding Tourism Attractions of the Province

Type (historical, cultural…)

Location

Attractions' Name

Row

Historical and cultural

Birjand

Historical mansions of akbariyah,rahimabad and shokatabad

1

Historical

Birjand

Castle of birjand

2

Natural

Birjand

Birjand Band-e-Dareh's special   tourism zone

3

Natural

5km of south birjand

Vila region of band-e-Amirshah

4

Natural

Birjand, end of ghafari st

Chehardeh waterfall

5

Natural

Birjand

Qyuk waterfall

6

Historical and Natural

Qaen

Bouzarjomher's special tourism zone

7

Historical

Qaen

Qaen Mosque

8

Natural and Historical

5km of south Qaen

Castle of Qaen

9

Historical

Ephin, 80km of Qaen

Ephin Mosque

10

Historical

Qaen

Shaskooh area

11

Natural

62km of north Qaen

Farsian Stone bridge

12

Natural

Ferdows

Baghestan's special tourism zone and hot water

13

Natural and Historical

Ferdows

Bideskan village

14

Historical

Ferdows

Historical city of toon

15

Natural and Historical

Ferdows

Ghalah kooh

16

Religious and Historical

Ferdows, Historical city of toon

Shrine of sultan mohammad and sultan ebrahim

17

Historical

Ferdows, Historical city of toon

Ferdows Mosque

18

Historical and Natural

Hasanabad village-ferdows

Hasanabad Castle

19

Historical

Boshrooyah

Historical place of boshrooyah

20

Natural and Historical

Boshrooyah

Hogand shrine

21

 

Natural and Historical

Boshrooyah

Ghalah dokhtar

22

Natural and Historical l

Boshrooyah

Roghah Mosque

23

Historical

Nehbandan

Castle of Nehbandan

24

Nehbandan

Nehbandan

Shahdezh Castle

25

Natural

75km of north Nehbandan

Kaji Salt marsh wetlands

26

Historical

Nehbandan, Khansharaf  village

Khansharaf Windmills

27

Historical

Nehbandan, Charfarsakh  village

Charfarsakh Windmills

28

Natural

Nehbandan, dehsalam  village

Village and Desert of dehsalam

29

Natural and Historical

Sarayan

Sarayan Mosque

30

Natural and Historical

Sarayan, masabi and karimo  village

karimo-Mosabi's special tourism zone

31

Natural and Historical

Sarayan

Caravan-serai

32

Historical

Sarayan, chaemah village

Dragon Cave

33

Natural

Sarayan, seghalah

Desert area of seghalah

34

Historical and Natural

Mud

Castle- Garden of mud

35

Religious and Historical

Sarbisheh-mud

Mazar-e- kahi

36

Historical and cultural

Sarbisheh, doroh

Wonderful village of makhonik

37

Historical and Religious

Sarbisheh-mud

Attraction of chenesht village

38

Natural

Sarbisheh

Sarbisheh Abtorsh

39

Natural and Historical

Boshrooyeh

Boshrooyeh ghalahdokhtar

40

Natural and Historical

Darmiyan,furg village

Tourism village and furg castle

41

Natural

Darmiyan, Abgarm village

Abgarm village

42

Historical and Natural

Darmiyan

DarmiyanTourism village

43

Natural

9km of East darmiyan village

Doshingan village

44

Historical

Birjand, khousf

Ark protected area

45

Natural

Khousf

Historical context of khousf

 

46

Natural

Birjand, khousf

Loot Hot spring Hydrotherapy area

47

Religious

Birjand, khousf

Mazare – shah Solomon ali

48

Natural- historical

24th km of Tabas-Kharv village

Morteza Ali spring Hot Water

49

Natural- historical

Deyhook- Nayband village

Hot Water of Dig-e-Rostam village

50

Natural

60th km of Tabas' North

Azmighan Tourism area

51

Natural

Tabas town- Esfandiar village

Mountainous Tourism area

52

Natural

Inside Tabas town

Golshan garden of Tabas

53

Natural

45th  kmof Tabas town

Esfahak Tourism village

54

Natural-Historical

220th km of Tabas south

Naybandan Tourism village

55

Natural

20th km of Tabas North

Kharv village

56

Natural

45th km of Birjand North

Mooshin river-basin

57

Natural

 

20th km of Sarbishe west

Barkooh dam

58

Natural

 

 

80th km of Qayen

 

Haji abad dam

59

Natural

20th km of Tabas west- Near Kharv village

Nahreyn dam

60

Natural-Historical

60th km of Tabas South

Krit Historical dam

61

Natural

24th km of Tabas town

Shah Abbasi historical dam

62

Natural

60th km of Tabas South

Gariveh Waterfall

63

Natural

35th km of Sarayan South

Sabzrood Valley's waterfall

64

Natural

10th km of Nehbandan South

Miniaturized Mountains

65

Natural

Ferdows

Sang-Soorakh mountain

66

Natural

25th km of Qayen southeast

Varzagh cave

67

Natural

90th km of Qayen west

Pahlavan cave

68

Natural

20th km of Qayen south

Khunic cave

69

Natural

25th km of Qayen

Joojeh cave

70

Natural

60th km of Qayen north

Farsan cave

71

Natural

65th km of Sarbisheh- Chenesht village north

Chenesht cave

72

Natural

65th km of Sarbisheh

Chehel Giah cave

73

Natural

130th km of Tabas northeast

The Hell cave

74

Natural

90th km of Tabas northwest

Hyena cave

75

Natural

Tabas

Old Olive tree

76

 

Natural

20th km of Tabas east

The old cypress tree in Kharv

77

 

Natural

Qayenat town

Esfaden plain

 

78

 

Natural

Ferdown town

Mozaffari plain

 

79

Natural

130th km of Nehbandan south west

Loot wind- sand

80

Natural

50th km of Khoor northwest

Khoor desert

81

Natural

150th km of Nehbandan

Nehbandan desert

 

82

Natural

1th km of Boshroyeh east

Boshroyeh desert

83

 

Natural

20th km of Hajiabad southwest

Hemmat abbad desert in Zirkooh

 

84

Natural

100th km of Birjand

Akbarabad percussion

85

Natural

90th km of Tabas northeast

Halvan desert

86

 

Natural

50th km of Nehbandan northwest

Turpentine jungle in Nehbandan

87

 

Natural

70th km of Khosf west

Tamarisk-Grape jungle

88

 

Natural

70th km of Khosf west

Organic Houses

89

Natural

2th km of Dasht-e Bayaz- Saghoori village

Stone arc of Pharsian cave

90

Natural

30th km of Ferdows

Hole-stone mountain

91

Natural

110th km of Birjand

Sahlabad pool

92

 
 Handicrafts

Handicraft is one of the most favorable employment areas which plays an important role in recruitment of creative people and should be considered as a solution to the Youth problems, where climate situation and area limitations have a main contribution to the area to remain unknown. With regard to this fact that local art is the most animate kinds of art, it should be paid attention on a wide scale. Handicrafts are among the cultural heritage of each area and are affected by cultural, geographical and historical environment of the area. In the present, among the 250 artifacts which are recognized and coded, more than 40 majors is practiced in south Khorasan, some of which will be presented in this section.

 
 
 
 Carpet and Rug
 The history of carpet and rug dates back to many years ago in south khorasan. Rug is hand-woven linen whose history, with regard to social need of human communities, quick transportation possibilities and its weaving, dates back to the time before the production of carpet.

Generally, carpeting situation can be divided into three periods over the last 100 years:

 
 
 1-      The years before 1300 to 1300, where good and premium-quality were woven.

2-      Year 1300 to 1322: Despite the production of good products in Birjand and Mood, due to the occurrence of first and Second World War and especially its consequences, there was an especial recess and distress in export and sale of the carpets which was the introduction for later changes. 

3-      Carpeting have refined slowly since year 1320 when professional producer like Aziz Mohammad Zahrayi , Dr Abdolali  Ahmadi , Abdolmajid jamshidy and Gholamhossein Kamyabi  bring fame of carpet back to this region .

 

Carpeting is so common in most cities and villages of this province that more than 80% of rural inhabitants work in carpeting. Some of the important places of carpeting are Mood , Dorokhsh , Chaj, Asiyaban , Sarbisheh , Gask, Baghestan , Koshkak , Kosroabad , Naharjan , Shkhenat , Forkhas , Darehabas , Rejnok , Sarchah , Fazlabad , … . weaving rugs is also current in some areas including: Zirkoh Qaen ( Bamrod , Esfad , Abiz , Arabkhaneh , Haji Abad , Shahrakht and Mehney village ), while wooly rugs are woven in places like Khalaf , Feizabad , Sarab , Takkhan , Seyedabad , Khor, Khosf , Shirg Agha , Darvishabad , Arab kaneh , Hajiabad , Fandokht , Shamsabad , Bahmanabad , Garmab , Tighab , esfeden , Shokhanat , Gazar, Doroh , Chahderaz , Sarzehgorid , Kam chah , Mazar Saghi and Bichand .  

 
 Traditional dyeing

As carpeting has been the dominant industry of this region, carpet producers need large amount of ingrain to produce carpet. Therefore, dyeing industry has existed simultaneously with carpeting. Dyeing experts use traditional ingredient such as walnut sells, grapes leaf, madder, pomegranate shells, saffron, blackberry, safflower, straw, sumac, sour cherry, mignonette and nil in order to produce color.

Gelim-weaving

Gelim has been used as linen for a long time and it is easier and cheaper to produce Gelim than carpet.  Gelim-weaving is common in many cities and town of the province.

Jajim-weaving

It seems that the term Jajim is derived from a Turkish word which means small and pleasant. Jajim, called jajam in local speech is one of the special arts of kordish and Turkish people, which is woven in every part of Iran. This product is woven in south khorasan cities including: Nehbandan and Birjand and specially Ghayenat ".

 

 

Traditional Textile

Textile has been produced for long time in this region which has an important role to achieve self-sufficiency. Some of important textile including: burlap, Ehrami , towel , weaving silk . This rural art- industry has been common in most villages of south Khorasan. In most part of the province this field is referred to as "Tobafi".

Traditional Rodouzi

Traditional Rodouzi is one of Iranian traditional arts which can be said firmly that is the most applicable and beautiful one and has numerous varieties (about 115 fields identified) which has sub-divisions and unique structural features according to the region and workplace. So that, it is possible to realize their origin according to their type, method of sewing and use of various colors. Some native and popular Needle-weaving in South Khorasan include sormeh embroidery, tinsel embroidery, aJydeh embroidery, sequin embroidery, silk embroidery, cheshmeh embroidery, cream embroidery, lace embroidery, filigree, passementerie, one/ten embroidery, network embroidery and metallic embroidery which mostly been done in the old and now is done in a limited and filling leisure time in some places of the province.

Local clothes

Clothes of every tribe are based on their culture, climate, religious and other effective factors which influence culture and art of nations. Local clothes of people in south khorasan consist mostly of cotton and soft materials which is applicable in dry weather of this region. Generally, the garment of women and men of south khorassan include: scarf, socks, and clothes.

traditional Shoes

Giveh-weaving and Giveh-needling with cotton threads and leather shoes were among the main shoes used in South Khorasan. Once, shoe-making was to be abolished.

 

Felting  

Felting is one of jobs which were prevalent previously in Birjand and some of villages in towns like Nehbandan, Sarbisheh and Sarayan. Already it was common in some villages and cities of province like Salmabad of Sarbisheh and Sarayan.

 

Mat weaving

Mat is weaved  with palm leaf  in cities like Nehbandan, (especially in Dehsalm  village )  producing goods like basket , basketry , circle and oval rug , decorative statue of animals like camel and Shilg( a place for saving food).  A kind of basket which is weaved with wheat stem is produced in Qaenat city and some villages of Sarayan Town. There is also a kind of curtain made from reed of Hamoonn  swamp  which is produced in Birjand.

 

Tarkeh-weaving

Due to the existence of Bagheran Mountains which provide the raw materials for this industry, this job is mostly related to Birjand and its surrounding villages and dates back to more than 100 years ago.

 In order to weave various baskets, we use mountain almond wood (bitter almond, Saftrag) and branches of red willow (scarlet willow) which is narrow and elegant with high flexibility.  Some commodity produced by them include : basket , tray , basketry , goosbad ( to save alfalfa for sheep and cows ) , plate (for vegetable ) and birds cage .

 

 Pottery

 Pottery which is mostly without glaze or primary glaze is completely applicable in south khorasan. Shahzileh and Koosheh villages are leading places of in production of potteries. Pottery wheel which is rotated by foot is primary in these villages. Pottery is accomplishing with wire or rotating method, while wire method is used to make tall utensil or furnace. This industry is common in Birjand, Khosf and even Ferdows cities.

 

Stone cutting

This profession started from the year 1350 with usual work on stone in Birjand city which might have been done before this time widely in some regions of south khorasan.

 

 Forging

Forging is one of domestic and prevalent industries of south khoras which  is approximately active in Birjand and Sarayan cities.

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
1395/02/07
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