Tuesday, October 23, 2018
پارسی
پایگاه اطلاع رسانی استانداری خراسان جنوبی
home
Environmental Environmental Scope of the Province

natural features of Province environment:

Nature of South Khorasan, due to factors such as geographical location, elevation, geological structure, climate, and the land formation has extraordinary biodiversity.              

The province locating on the dry belt as well as the natural factors provide it with the face of desert and semi-desert. Of course the climatic limitations of the area to some extent is compensated with mountainous area. With a brief overview of different eco systems of the today world, including our country, it is inevitable to protect some parts of the country and the province region in order to maintain the ecological balance of ecosystems and ensure that the ecosystem is maintained. Creating special areas of habitat and its protection by the  Environmental Protection Agency is an  attempt to preserve wisely the biodiversity and endangered  species that have been demolished and destroyed. Now,   as a result of the rapid human population growth, increasing lack of responsibility, and  its affect on the natural ecosystems and living resources, also seeing nature as a free commodity from the view of the current development, we are facing a precarious future. At this point in order to preserve what remains, we have to select areas that their biological value is still not completely destroyed.

Desert areas ecosystems are of high ecological values and capabilities. Existence of plant species and particular animals  and its unique nature, make this area as of the most rewarding areas ­of natural ecosystems. With respect to the climatic conditions of the region and specific prospects including the running sand phenomena and existence of animals and plants species compatible with most difficult climatic conditions in these areas, they could become one of the most attractive areas of ecotourism.

The Environmental Protection Department of South Khorasan, in order to maintain the genetic and biological reserves, preserve  plants and animals species and ­ endemic genes,  investigation  and reasonable utilization, maintaining species generation and preventing the human aggression, conserve and protect some covered areas  in conditions of including the presence of rare and valuable species of plants and animals.

Features and capabilities of the natural environment development :

- Existence of specialist and committed people

- Existence of such unique natural wealth, such as special species of blond crow in province and intact natural habitat and numerous resources.

- Holding ­ Environmental training courses in order to make the public aware and make the  private sector involved.

- Proposals of necessary  schemes and strategies to correct some strange rules and resolve legal impact on the environment

Garang and Arc protected area:

According to the official announcement of the Act No. 270 dated 19.01.85, Ark and Garang was introduced as a protected area by Environmental Protection Council. This region with an area of 30,000 hectares is located between 58˚ 3709 West Longitude to the 58˚ 5100 East Longitude, and between 32˚ 4708 south latitude to 33 ˚01 04 north latitude. This area vast is 30,000 hectares with a maximum altitude of 2481 m and 1303 m as minimum.

The diversity of the natural landscape of Arc and Garang

Diversity of water sources: springs, watersheds, rivers, canals, trough.

Animal diversity: Mammals, including goats, wolves, jackals, foxes, Rabbit ,Porcupine and different birds like partridge, dull-yellow partridge, grouse, Dove, crow, eagle kinds of carnivorous birds, and Sanan sparrows ....

Plant diversity:   In terms of vegetation, the dominant plants in the Arc and Garang are currently sagebrush in plain areas and mastic and Badamshk trees in highlands ,  and other existent plants include: cumin, Mstar, kaporeh, hyssop flowers,, Ziziphora tenuior flowers, yarrow flowers, thyme, red tulips, Acetone, jumping,wild fig,milk vetch, tamarisk, willow, Myrhossin hat, camel thorn, Ephedra and some plants of the Succory family .

Existence of a unique habitat:  impassable rocks are habitats of goats

Recreational centers: Arc village due to its good weather and tree crops is known as a recreational village in this region.

Exploitation of medicinal plants and on the tree: From the old time, local people used to collect medicinal herbs such as thyme, Cumin Mountain, kalporeh, rivas, baneh, etc. and this was a way of making a living.

The protected area of Darmiyan:

According to an official announcement of the Act No. 284 dated 11.12.86, Darmiyan was introduced as a protected area by Environment Protection Council.  This region with an area of 80,000 hectares is  located between 59˚ 40 West Longitude to 60˚ 01 and 36 East Longitude 32 ˚58 and 32˚ 36 North latitude. This region is located at a distance of 68 km from Birjand and 25 km from the north of Sarbisheh.

The diversity of the natural landscape of Darmiyan

Diversity of water resources: Springs, rivers, canals, water reservoirs, wells.

The diversity of animal: mammals, including sheep, Pallas's cat, wolf, fox, jackal, hyena,rabbits, porcupine, various types mouse and birds such as partridges, Tihoo, Dove, plain eagle, golden eagles, Dlijeh, Homa,vulture.

Plant diversity: Consists of vegetation such as ghich, wild nasrin, ormak, harmala, Gaz, coma, zol, mirhosin hat, jumping, camel thorn, wild peas, astragalus, mound  flower, snapdragon, lily, thyme, salvia, horse flank, Pova, Chubak , Khargony, wild lettuce, cycling, artichokes, sugar Tyghal, cornflower, sagebrush, crap.

Recreational centers: There are waterfalls and springs of mineral water, wines, ancient castles of Hassan Sabbah and hundred-year plane tree of Doshngan , are  considered as tourist sites in the area.

Exploitation of medicinal plants and on the tree: From the old time, local people used to collect medicinal herbs and this was a way of making a living.

Communication Roads: Darmiyan is located within 15 km far from Sarbisheh and  25 km far from Asadieh,  and the asphalt road of Sarbisheh- Asadieh  which passes through this region  connects these two cities. Birjand city within 68 km far from this region is connected to the area via asphalt roads of   Birjand- Sarbishe and Birjand -Asadieh.

Water Resources: Water resources are known as one of the most important Ecological resources on which the distribution of wildlife is dependent.  Darmiyan has a number of springs such as, burned spring, Poneh spring Chahar Derakhty Spring, Khalil Abad spring, Jozani spring, Gaz flowers spring, Siah Lakhy spring, tak Komahy spring, pagdar spring, and fountains springs. The region doesn't have permanent rivers but some seasonal ones namely  Kalateh Shadi River, Miran Flower River, Tabasin River, Kandehee River,Kale Sorkh  River and Ratodar River.

Geology and soil: The three main types of mountains, the plains, plateau and upper terraces are as follows:

Mountain type: Consists of low-lying hills. There are severe slopes as well as rocky slopes on the foot and the  peak of the mountains. Dusty points are  shallow and soil is unavailable as a result of erosion. The dust lacks evolution and  the organic matter in the soil is so poor.

The plain type: Includes hills with rounded and dusty peaks with multiple valleys ; the land surface mixed with gravel, overhanging  of the rock and cliffs,­ and most of the lands are separated as small hills which the difference between the foot hills amplitude to the peak is not too high.  It is covered with low depth soil and  doesn't have rich soil. The soil has mass structure, and its neutralization percent is high with low depth and low organic matter content so the bottom layer in this regard

is very weak.

Plateau and upper terraces: Includes ­relatively level Shelf, consisting of new debris ­and shallow grave of the Forth Earth ­Studies where there is low-slope and low topography and the land surface is covered with gravel, and is moderate from the vegetation view. Different types of rocks, which form the soil materials include the limestone, sandstone, new terraces and Quaternary.

In this area there aren't deep valleys, but  there are some wide and  different shaped streams with low height  and medium textured soils with no prolific development  and  sustainable structure that sometimes it is difficult to  diagnose the different layers of it. The organic matter is low and weak in the lower surface layer of the soil.

 

High percentage of the rock in this region consists of: Shile Stone, sandstone, Maren Tip Flish, locally limestone rock and  slightly altered units of rock. Lowest percentage of rock unit in this region are generally: Bazi rock unit mostly serpentinized rock units, Posts terraces, alluvial fans.

 

The protected area of Shaskoh:

 

Shaskoh protected area got noticed since the establishment  of the Environmental Protection Agency of Ghaenat (in 1374). Esfeden plain, with an area of 114,650 hectares in Shaskoh region, was proposed as hunting prohibited place in 2001.  By separating agriculture lands in 2003 and clearing  the area, its extent reduced to 111,542 hectares and in 15/02/2005 it was officially chosen as the first hunting prohibition place. In 2006, through more careful consideration, some more conflicting plains from the South part were removed and Farrokhi and Mehdi Abad mound-plain areas where wild sheep pass to adjacent habitats were added to the proposed protection area, and finally it was approved as Shaskoh Protection Area by the official announcement of Environmental Protection Council in Act No. 285 dated 12.11.2007 with an area of 70300 hectares.

The diversity of natural landscapes of Shaskoh

Diversity of water sources: springs, watersheds, rivers, canals, water reservoirs, wells, wind, trough.

Animal diversity: Mammals, including goats, sheep, Pallas's cat, hyena, yolk and several birds, including Hobarh, blond crow, Eagle types and carnivorous birds, sparrows and Sanan....

Plant diversity: Regional variation in topography caused the thermal fluctuations and natural differences in climatic conditions, especially from the type of precipitation in the region that as its result we see unparalleled diversity of terrestrial vegetation, wet, salt resistant, forage plants, plant a, shrubs and trees. It worth mentioning  that here contradictions  are in together!   We can find Lonicera persic tree near the Baneh, Badameshk and shrubs plants. Padeh Tree can be found near the resistant shrubs which likes water. Or Vitexnegundo (Five fingers) can be found in  the marginal zone of the area that is of  the Gulf of Oman  and tropical area flowers.

Existence of unique habitat: Topographic structure of the region is capable of providing habitat for various animals.

Impassable cliffs are Goats habitats. These habitats also have the ability to release Leopard that not so long ago lived in the rocks. Presence of caves and deep holes provide good shelter and living conditions for some cats and other carnivorous mammals. Well water troughs for wild animals are found in some rocky areas that is an important factor for secure protection and to stay out of hunters. Existence of shelf bearing rocks (such as the niche),  is good location for regeneration of large prey birds  including the  mountains eagles, vultures, golden eagles and other prey  birds .

Pilgrimage and recreational centers: Shrines that are scattered across the region are of tourism potential.  Shaskoh grave, Mirabad grave, 12- Imam Grave also the sporadic tree cover in the area provides attractive environment to tourists as well as local people that are already in use.

Exploitation of medicinal plants and on tree: From the old time, local people used to collect  medicinal herbs such as: Thyme, cumin mountain, kalporeh, spinach, rhubarb, pistachio and by this was a way of making a living.

Protected area of Mozafari:

According to an official announcement of the Act No. 280 dated 12.11.86, Mozafari region was introduced as a protected area by Environment Protection Council. The region with an area of 92808 hectares is located between 57˚ 26 West Longitude to 57˚ 57 East Longitude and between 34 ˚28 south Latitude and 34˚ 20 North latitude. 

Important Capabilities ­:

1 - Topographic conditions: existence of rocky heights and open fields around it provide suitable condition for the presence of wildlife; moreover due to the good purview it provides favorable conditions for complete protection of the area.

2 - Ability to attract tourist and improving tourism industry through provision of training and awareness rising

3 Appropriate conditions for the wildlife reproduction projects:  Zebra proliferation Project in the region

4 - Implementation of Conference, regional championships and rock climbing in the region

Wildlife refuge of Kaji Namakzar:

 Kaji Namakzar according to Section (v) and Article 6 of the Law on Environmental Protection and Remediation since 15/11/86 was announced as hunting banned region for 5 years. According to an official announcement of the Act No.312, the region was introduced as a protected area by Environment Protection Council. With an area of 22765 hectares the area is located between 59˚ 50 West Longitude to 60˚ 00 East Longitude and between 31 ˚54 south Latitude and 32˚ 20 North latitude. 

Rabat Shour wildlife refuge:

Robat Shore alteration  from a free area to a protected area was approved on the president's journey  to this province. Accordingly, after obtaining the favorable opinion of the Department of State and Department of Natural Resources of mines and industries, the results were reflected by the general office, and got ready to propose to Infrastructure, Industry and Environment Commission. This region is located at a distance of 60 km from the West of Ferdows.

diversity of wildlife and natural landscapes of Rabat Shore

Diversity of water sources: springs, rivers, canals, water reservoirs, wells.

Variety of animal species: Kinds of goat and deer which their main habitat is on the Robat Shore Mountain and sandy Rabat are of  the region distinguished species.  Rabat shore region has biodiversity value. The area is suitable habitat for different categories of animals, especially mammals, birds and reptiles. Different species of animals have been observed in the region, including:

Mammals:  Goats, rabbits, deer, porcupine, sand cat, Lynx, fox, common fox, sand, yolk of bats, wolves, jackals, hyena,

Various rodents such as porcupine, Pamsvaky and so on...

Birds: vulture, partridge, Tiho, Hobreh, Coker variety, duduk, Sabze qoba, Lark, Shrike and Other Sanan sparrows, low-variety of large birds of prey such as eagles, Sarigeh, Delijeh etc. .

Reptiles: turtles, lizard, Gama, Types of snakes and Lizard (it can be stated that the highest diversity of reptiles are in the province s, so it can be mentioned as a living museum of reptiles).

Plant diversity: Despite the semi-arid desert climate, the lack of rainfall and continuing drought ­, the vegetation diversity in some parts of the region in terms of coverage is significant. Vegetation types of the area can be divided into five types:

A) Robat Shore Mount: the dominant species is mountain shrub species associated with Gadask plants which in spring with flowering and fruiting give special beauty to the mountain nature, and foothill areas and margins, Parand, Mokhalesih, Hom, medicinal and edible plants types such as rhubarb, kalporeh, ziziphora tenuior, Malengo, caraway and annual and perennial herbaceous species.

B) The ligaments land surrounding Robat Shore Mountains: This area because of its density range and percentages of cover of the dominant species of sagebrush  is distinct from other areas.  Associated speciesinclude birds, flags, tulips and other species of annuals and perennials herbaceous.

C) The central plain: between the Robat Shore Mountains and ligament margin of waterways of the sabulous , you can find relatively weak and fragmented vegetation. Sagebrush, camel thorn, a variety of salty, harmala, Ghich, species of annual herbaceous plants contain vegetative cover of this part.  In the sabulous margin cover, most plants form Jefneh bushes provide good coverage. These conditions are dominant in northern parts of region and cover about 30% of the total land of the area.

D) Sabulous and gravel hills (about 55 percent of total area)

In spring season with growing of annual grasses it becomes specific green. These lush lives in some parts of the plants such as Sif, wild pea and Bitter melon continues into summer and fall and become food source, especially for deer, as well as wild vegetarians. Haloxylon trees also are scattered in this area. Asknbyl as dense or sparse covers some parts of the area. Jefneh, flags, raided, Charbok, (local names), are of other species.

E) The south area and seasonal rivers of Klavgi:

- The seasonal river of Klavgi: In the bank of the river there is suitable  condition for the growth of tamarisk shrubs  which its outlook is marked as a green bar.  In the plain and foothills of the south land, Haloxylon forest and Artemisia plain type will form the dominant vegetation. Other species such as Flag, Bad charkhank, Gaz, tulips, Mokhalaseh and a variety of annual and perennial herbaceous plants  can also be mentioned.

- Recreational centers: Old Robat, sandy Robate Shore is considered as tourist sightseeing.

- Exploitation of medicinal plants and on tree: According to the recent multi-year drought and a large part of the area being sabulous, the vegetation is very poor.

- Means of communication: 45 km Frdows asphalt road we should go approximately  15 kilometers into  Boshrouyeh .

- Water: 4 - 5 springs, wells of livestock, Robate shore Aqueduct,  Kalavgy river

Wildlife Haven of Nay Bandan Tabas:

Nay Bandan Tabas according to an official announcement of the Act No.200 by the Environmental Protection council, since 25/07/80 was announced as wildlife refuge region. The region with an area of 1516993 hectares is located between 55˚ 36 West Longitude to57˚ 33 East Longitude and between 31 ˚50 south Latitude to the 33˚ 15 North latitude, and its altitude ranges between 568 to 2965 meters above sea level.

Landscape diversity of natural wildlife of Nay Bandan Tabas:

Diversity of water resources: Water resources in the region, mainly include fountains and few rocks water, and subterranean water reservoir that  is often used for livestock and wildlife drinking water. Water for wildlife haven is obtained  from at least 210 natural springs and 10 water stores and available natural stone water in the mountains area. The volume of water taken from these sources is not substantial because they have very little discharge. Studies on the water quality of these resources showed that although most of these sources of water are relatively of high salinity, it can be used as wildlife drinking water.

Animal Diversity: Important animal species ­of this haven are cheetah, Jabir, sheep, goats, hyena, king, fox, caracals, Hobreh,  blond crow, Quebec, Tiho, vulture, eagle, gray falcon, horned viper, Jafary Snake, snake, and Buzmacheh. Until about 30 years ago in the "Rabat Goor" Wildlife Refuge of Tabas, Iranian Zebra has been living which is now extinct. Jangal, is the name of Cheetah which is about 12 years and is known as the world's oldest Cheetah which lived in this area ­.  Jangal  corpse was  founded in 2011 near Aliabad Outpost  in wildlife Refuge of Nay Bandan Tabas  that due to its age and  probably disability in hunting was dead.

Plant diversity: The most important plant species include sagebrush, peanuts, Kroj, ghich, Ramas, Haloxylon, Tamarisk, Ashnan, palm, Ni, Parand, scorpion tail Myrhossin hats , tiny bulbs, species of Goon, Kermani Askanbyl, Askanbyl Iran, Tabasi Askanbyl, Ferula asa, Karqij desert, jazz sand, dog teeth, Abargovy dandruff, dandruff Yazdi, thistle, thyme.

The unique habitat:  The Nay Bandan wildlife refuge as the largest refuge in Iran is the most  important Refuge for Asian panther. Existence of the moving sand hills and mass range of relatively dense Tamarix in the dry banks of rivers and floodways or formed in playa fringes is considered as the unique characteristic of this area. 

Recreation centers: Of the most important tourist attractions in the areaare the followings:

Iraqi forests: The palm that groves along 10 km have two boil and cool water spas next to each other. These forests are located at a distance of 3 km from Dig Rustam  and are of sightseeings in haven. Natural Nayband palm groves on Nayband fault with vegetation of palm tree, reed and tamarisk that creates innovative landscapes. Whilst the existence of two spas together is an outstanding natural attraction.

Sea: It is addressed to a sluice however small but in winter and spring blowing winds make waves on the surface of its stored water that creates a scene of sand waves comparable to the one of the sea. This sluice which the cameleers have made  a shed next to it,  in the rainy years  has water until the end of  the summer , and serves the aquatic birds such as pigeons and sea ducks, coot and other kind of birds . Often in barren desert(Dagh) sidelines of area, there are high windy-sand hills of 20 to 50 km length that  create beautiful landscape.  Foreign experts who visited this region, likened ­ these hills to the sandy hills Kalahari Desert.

Ghale Kah Mountain: Karbalaee Muhammad Shand boundary is located in the north of this refuge. The metaphore of this mountain is because of its shape since from the  bottom it looks like a castle and it is impossible to go up and down but through a special path. It  is also widely quoted that if straw  is thrown up a cliff because of the severe slope it is not stopping anywhere, so it's known as straw castle(Ghale Kah). Existence of such a sparking  natural phenomenon  is a great potential for rock climbing.

Ghale Kah Kaleh Ghandi :   A beautiful hill in Ghale Kah desert at a distance of 10 km from Ghale Kah fountain that  looks like a sugar loaf and so is known as Ghale Kah Kaleh Ghandi . Since there is no hill  within 2- 3 km, Kale Ghandi draws attention.

 Dig Rostam hot spring:  Dig Rostam has mineral hot springs with sulfur compounds. Springs flowing on the ground floor create beautiful rainbow place. Its water has mineral properties and since its original spa is like a  pot it is called so. Due to its  locating besides Kerman - Mashhad main road, this place can be developed into a therapeutic spa thriving site.

Globisheh Tower :  On the west of Naybandan Wildlife Refuge , a stone tower on a hill is located at the mouth of the Galobisheh river that controls the traffic routes to the entrance  of this area and inside the mouth there is a woodland in which very tall straws up to a few meters grow . there exist saline water in the grove which is used by half of the animals.

 Moc shour Castle: Mac (by making Mim ) is defined as the Mag or palm tree. Constructing the castle on a hill near the salt springs which a palm existed alongside of it; made this fort known as popular salty Mac castle ( Mac shour Castle).  Its four -corner tower constructed on the basis of old architecture with stone and mortar materials is made in such a way that its roof  is smaller than  the base, in other word it  becomes smaller from up to down. The tower consists of the ground floor, first floor and second floor. No one's known about its antiquity. Due to its security against enemy has  good safety features, including rolling mill in front of the entrance, a location for pouring water, boiled oil or any dangerous liquid on enemy . The windows for sky light in building has been designed so that light can pass down to the middle of the rooms, but the bullet could not be imported in. There is a fireplace in each room. Tower unique architecture and beautiful view  says to the visitor that the Iranian even in the wilderness of the desert in distant parts in their architecture use the most interests and initiative creations.

Sar Kavir: Sar Kavir is a small village that had one or two household population previously but  now is empty. This small village is located 500 meters away from the north of  Aliabad village. Besides this village on looming , there is a tall tower built of stone and mortar which is as old as  Moc Shour castle. It has a broad view of the region covering Sar Kavir plain and Moc Shour. Apparently the residents of Moc Shour and Sar Kavir tower  ( whether military and non-military ) has been in contact with each other.

Pire Talkhab:  23 km far from the west of Ali Abad, there is a stone that Naybandan people has religious beliefs about it and call it Pire Talkhab. Term of Talkhab is because of the spring  which is located near it and its water is a little bitter. From a few years ago, some believers decided to make a building because of the Lord's fulfillment of their request. The  building  is of brick and iron, which has two rooms with the doors and windows made ​​of aluminum andiron, and is now in use by the  people who are dealing with the desert and visitor of the desert in summer and winter and has facilities such as rugs, blankets, dishes, gas, and kettle that people take there.

Hoz-e Ghorban (khan) Inn: From its name it's obvious that one person named Ghorban made a pool and after that an inn was constructed. Of course the old constructions were mainly to providing water. This construction also  called Hoz-e Khan inn was of high value for the travelers between Naybandan-Raver Road.It has an interesting and beautiful architecture and also good security facilities.

 Chehel Payeh  Ligament: This ligament is located on Tabas - Kerman frontiers, on the old way of Ravar - Mashhad . From  Ravar Darband  towards Nayband in caravan's route, a ligament is made called Robat-e Chehel SAR. This Name is gotten from the 40 stone columns on the way. Nowadays  some of these stone columns are still in good condition. This Robat was made in a river with high walls to control the route through which  caravans  had to pass. It's a big Robat with beautiful old architecture that is still  intact.  The distance from the Robat-e Chehel Pyeh Inn to Hoz-e Ghorban Inn is about 30 km.

Caravans moved from home to home on this way and these inns were safe refuge for them to stay and rest. Both of these inns are still intact, and with little maintenance and repairmen could still be open to desert caravans of tourists.

Communication:  Neybanadn Tabas wildlife is  limited from the north to Yazd - Tabas road and Parvardeh mine road to Neyestan village,  from the South and East to Naybandan- Ravar  road, from Naybandan to Neyestan village, and from the west to the border city of Tabas. The distance  of this refugee to Tabs is about  40 kilometers.  Its availability roads are Yazd- Tabas main road and Tabas- Ravar ,which  both  are considered to be  part of  the boundary of the haven.

 

 

 

 

1395/02/07
Scoring
Average Scores:0 Total Rate:0
View Comments (Number of Comments 0)
Send comments
name  
E-mail address    
شماره تلفن
Description  
تغییر کد امنیتی  
SecurityCode  
 
footerpic
Powered by DorsaPortal